Episode 56: The Return of the King

Second Intermediate Period (Part V).


War rages up and down the Nile. The Thebans drive towards the Hyksos capital, Avaris, hoping to isolate and conquer it.

King Ahmose I, and his mother Queen Ah-hotep pummel their foes, while raising up their friends. We met two of these: Ahmose Ibana, a commoner, and QueenAhmose-Nefertari, wife of the King and priestess of Amun.



A dagger belonging to King Ahmose I, found in his tomb (Royal Ontario Museum).

A bronze axe, inscribed with the cartouches of Neb-pehty-Re Ahmose I (Ashmolean Museum, Oxford).

A dagger handle, with the names of King Apepy (of Avaris), the Ruler of the Hyksos (National Egyptian Museum, Cairo).

Queen Ahmose-Nefertari, the Priestess of Amun-Re, consort of the King, and daughter of Ah-hotep (Metropolitan Museum, NY).

Trinkets of King Ahmose I, including two small lions and a box in the shape of his cartouche (Musee du Louvre).



Reshafim.org – The Autobiography of Ahmose son of Ibana.

Irene Forstner-Muller, “Avaris, its Harbours and the Peru-nefer Problem,” Egyptian Archaeology 45 (2014). Read for free online at Academia.edu.

W. Vivian Davies, “The Tomb of Ahmose Son-of-Ibana at Elkab, Documenting the Family and Other Observations,” Elkab and Beyond: Studies in Honour of Luc Limme, 2009. Read for free at Academia.edu.

Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton. The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2010.

William Kelly Simpson (editor). The Literature of Ancient Egypt, 2006.

Anthony J. Spalinger. War in Ancient Egypt, 2005.