Episode 53: Rulers of Foreign Lands

Second Intermediate Period (Part II).


c.1650 BCE, Egypt is invaded from the East. They come from an unknown region of Arabia/Palestine/Syria, and have overthrown the Canaanites of the Delta.

They subjugate the lands from Memphis to the Mediterranean. They capture the necropolis and tombs of the sacred cities. They compel the Kings of Upper Egypt to pay them tribute.

They are the Hyksos, and their coming is a watershed in the history of the country. 

The territory of the Hyksos; border in red (Full Resolution).



Daphna Ben-Tor, "Can Scarabs Argue for the Origin of the Hyksos?" Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections, 1 (2009). FREE on Academia.edu.

Nadine Moelleret al., "Discussion of Late Middle Kingdom and Early Second Intermediate Period History and Chronology in Relation to the Khayan Sealings From Edfu." Egypt and the Levant, XXI (2011). FREE on Academia.edu.

Wolfram Grajetzki, "Notes on Administration in the Second Intermediate Period," The Second Intermediate Period, 2010.

Charlotte Booth, The Hyksos Period in Egypt, 2008.