From Byblos to Nubia
The nine-year reign of Maacheru-Re Amenemhat IV are unremarkable, but Egypt is entering into a fascinating period of international visibility. Foreigners from Canaan are moving into the country in larger and larger numbers, and will eventually cause enormous disruptions in the political world. We explore their origins and their culture...
A gold plaque of Maacherure, discovered at Beirut (Lebanon), near Byblos. Maacherure Amenemhat IV offers oils to Atum, the Creator.
A scarab of Amenemhat III and Maacherure.
Scarabs from Canaan, showing the Egyptian hieroglyphs and tropes which filtered into the country over time. (Source: Lippke, 2011).
Amethyst items produced during the Middle Kingdom.
Top: a hippopotamus.
Below: a scarab.
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Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, 2010.
Wolfram Grajetzki, The Middle Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, 2006.
Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, 1994.
Florian Lippke, "The Southern Levant in context. A brief sketch of important figures considering the religious symbol system in the Bronze Ages," in Egypt and the Near East - the Crossroads. Jana Mynárov, 2011.
Ian Shaw, "Amethyst Mining in the Eastern Desert: A Preliminary Survey at Wadi el-Hudi," Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 79 (1993): 81-97.
Jacke Phillips, "Egyptian Amethyst in the Bronze Age Aegean," Journal of Ancient Egyptian Interconnections 1.2 (2009): 9-25.
The History of Egypt, as the ancients described it. A tale of people, places, pharaohs and gods, told in their own words.