Episode 30: Smooth Sailing on the Red Sea

Sankhkare Montuhotep III and Punt.

In his eighth year on the throne, Sankhkare Montuhotep III now feels secure enough to dispatch a royal expedition.

Led by Henenu, Steward and Chief of the Six Courts of Justice, the expedition's destination is none other than the legendary Punt.

They will trade for myrrh, incense, and gum arabic, and return home victorious.


A head from Thebes, possibly Montuhotep III. From Dorothea Arnold (1991)

Montuhotep III, from the Louvre.

Montuhotep's kingdom and the reach of Henenu's expedition.

Gum Arabic. Wikipedia.

Senegalese traders exchanging gum arabic. 

Egyptian papyrus rope, discovered in the Mersa Gawasis. Discover Magazine.

An Egyptian anchor, discovered on the Red Sea coast. Limestone.



Dorothea Arnold. "Amenemhat I and the Early Twelfth Dynasty at Thebes." Metropolitan Museum of Art Journal. 1991 (Free Download).

Pierre Tallet. "Ayn Sukhna and Wadi el-Jarf: Two newly discovered pharaonic harbours on the Suez Gulf." British Museum Studies in Ancient Egypt and Sudan. 2012.