Episode 24: Lamentations

The First Intermediate Period (Part I): a Collapse.

Pepy II is gone, and with him the last well-documented reign of the Old Kingdom. 

Egypt is now disunited; in the North, the House of Khety has taken power and rule from Herakleopolis.

Although not necessarily a period of chaos, or tragedy, it is remembered negatively by later Egyptians. Ipuwer, a New Kingdom writer, describes the "memory" of the F.I.P. in his literary text, The Lamentations.


Nicolas Grimal. A History of Ancient Egypt. 1994.

W. K. Simpson (editor). The Literature of Ancient Egypt. 2003.